Contenido principal del artículo

La vinaza de caña de azúcar (VC) es el principal subproducto de la producción de bioetanol. Esta se considera un potencial contaminante debido a su índice de acidez y a la presencia de componentes orgánicos, sólidos en suspensión y metales pesados. Los altos niveles de producción de VC son sin duda una amenaza para el ambiente y la comunidad en general. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las principales disposiciones o tratamientos de VC, además de sus aplicaciones, empleando mapas bibliométricos para el análisis de metadatos. Se encontró que los principales focos de estudio con relación a la VC son: (i) digestión anaeróbica (DA), (ii) fertirrigación, (iii) coagulación/floculación, (iv) algas, microalgas y hongos, y (v) producción de hidrógeno. Adicionalmente, se determinó que el tratamiento más efectivo para VC fue la DA, alcanzando una eficiencia de 90% en la remoción de demanda química de oxígeno y una recuperación energética entre 85 y 95% como biogás. Finalmente, se abordaron los desafíos y oportunidades que enfrenta Latinoamérica con la creciente producción de VC, así como una revisión detallada de su tratamiento y/o disposición, incluyendo condiciones óptimas para la producción de productos de valor agregado.

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