Contenido principal del artículo

Las características físicas y químicas del hidrógeno lo han convertido en un vector energético prometedor con grandes aplicaciones en celdas de combustibles, así como materia prima para la participación en diversos procesos químicos a nivel de industrial. Una de las fuentes renovables de energía utilizada para la obtención de hidrógeno es la biomasa. Se han empleado varias moléculas modelo de biomasa para la generación de hidrógeno, las cuales incluyen principalmente alcoholes, carbohidratos, ácidos carboxílicos, alcanos entre otras. Estas moléculas son transformadas mediante rutas termoquímicas, bioquímicas, fotoquímicas, electroquímicas, catalíticas, etc., con el objetivo de alcanzar el mayor rendimiento a hidrógeno. En cada una de ellas, numerosas condiciones de reacción son utilizadas, sustratos y catalizadores son empleados. En esta revisión se abordarán algunos de los tópicos anteriormente mencionados y se vislumbraran algunas prospectivas y futuras investigaciones que pueden llevarse a acabo en el campo de la generación de hidrógeno.

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