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La detección adecuada de plagas y enfermedades en la producción de cultivos es fundamental para aumentar la producción agrícola de forma sostenible. Es por esta razón, que se incorpora el término Agricultura 4.0, la cual integra un conjunto de tecnologías, dispositivos, protocolos y paradigmas computacionales para mejorar los procesos agrícolas. La información sobre las condiciones climáticas, suelos, enfermedades, insectos, semillas, fertilizantes, constituye una importante contribución al desarrollo económico y sostenible de este sector. Las técnicas de procesamiento digital de imágenes son una herramienta que permite la identificación temprana de las plagas o enfermedades en los cultivos como: cereales, frutales, raíces, hojas y tubérculos; y de esta forma, mitigar pérdidas económicas en el sector agrícola. A nivel mundial, alrededor del 40% de los cultivos son desechados por diversas enfermedades y plagas. En la mayoría de los casos, las enfermedades de los cultivos producen síntomas y características visibles durante el crecimiento de las plantas. Debido a la escasez de tecnologías utilizadas en los cultivos, el diagnóstico de las enfermedades y plagas se soporta en gran parte en la inspección humana, generando errores ocasionados por la subjetividad de los individuos. La presente revisión de literatura se llevó a cabo con la finalidad de identificar diferentes técnicas de procesamiento digital de imágenes para la prevención de plagas y enfermedades en cultivos de los diferentes sectores agrícolas. Los resultados demostraron que el sistema de diagnóstico está compuesto de la adquisición de imágenes, preprocesamiento de imágenes, la segmentación, la extracción de características, la selección de características y la posterior clasificación de las plagas o enfermedades; asimismo, se presentan las tendencias y desafíos actuales en la temática.

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Gómez-Camperos J, Jaramillo H, Guerrero-Gómez G. Técnicas de procesamiento digital de imágenes para detección de plagas y enfermedades en cultivos: una revisión. inycomp [Internet]. 30 de octubre de 2021 [citado 18 de enero de 2022];24(1). Disponible en: https://revistaingenieria.univalle.edu.co/index.php/ingenieria_y_competitividad/article/view/10973

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